Approach to Care

Cancer is a medical condition that presents itself as a malignant neoplasm that can affect any person from any racial, social, and ethnic background, occupation, age, and social or economic status. The following essay discusses some of the most common factors that lead to the high rate of mortality for cancer diagnosis that include smoking of tobacco, alcohol consumption, exposure through different types of occupation like radiation and asbestos among other areas (Brailo et al., 2017). This assignment also looks at some of the generic factors which have also been discovered to be some of the major causes of the cancer disease. The paper is divided into several areas that include diagnosis, staging, complications, available cancer treatment, and physio and psychological effects. The paper argues that early detection of cancer is essential as this leads to a positive outcome.

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Currently, there is no proven test that can be used in the diagnosis of cancer even with the fact that by establishing the different types of cancer the effect is still as deadly (Brailo et al., 2017). There are, however, the steps taken during the diagnosis, and there are tools to be used in the helping and determining, recognizing or monitoring the whole process of diagnosis to ensure the right treatment is given.

Diagnosing of Cancer

During diagnosis, the first stage will be to ensure the patient has been reviewed so that the doctor can get more details regarding their personal history and the health history of the family is also an essential tool when it comes to the examination of patients. The other important step will be to take the patient through the laboratory test which is one of the essential tools when it comes to the diagnosis and the recognition of the various deviances in the typical patient values. The trial in the laboratory entails the use of essential tools that can be used in the helping and directing of a more diagnostic test which also show different forms of cancer. It is, therefore, necessary to inform that an abnormal laboratory does not mean that the patient has cancer (Abdi & Campbell, 2018). For example, tumor markers are usually substances which are produced and indicate the growing levels of evidence that the patient might be having a cancerous condition. However, this is not often the case since the tumor markers can also be generated by other cells which do not necessarily have to be cancerously deriving from the body and the start of any cancerous condition. The tumor marker is, however essential and can be used together with other tests like the biopsies during the treatment of cancer all through the whole duration. In the present times, there have been new technologies that provide for different unique ways that can be used to determine where the person’s body contains cancerous tumors or not. They include magnetic resonance imaging, (MRI), the ultrasounds, x-rays, computerized tomography scans, and positron emissions tomography (Abdi & Campbell, 2018). This regard, an essential form of diagnosis stage, is doing a biopsy which has proven to be the most practical test in the cancer diagnosis and another type of technological techniques. A biopsy is also one of the most effective procedures that entails the removal of a patient of a sample of the patient’s organ tissue. This must be the tissue that is thought to be cancerous; a pathologist then analyzes it by the use of a microscope, where the presence of cancerous cells will be checked (Joshi, 2019). After this, the biopsy sample will be collected by the use of aspiration needs and endoscopic tools, through surgery and aspiration needle to withdraw the fluid.

Staging of Cancer

In any case, cancer will be staged only after a diagnosis has been made. The cancer staging is essential as it helps in the development and determination of whether the patient has enough chances of survival or the need to put them under immediate palliative care. It is essential to come up with the critical method of treatment, recognize the options for clinical trials, and be able to understand the condition in the most appropriate manner (Joshi, 2019). The cancer staging is also pre-determined by the type of tumor found and the extent to which the said tumor has moved into the patient's body. Even the doctor will look into the lymph nodes engagement, where the original tumor is located and the absence or the presence of the distance metastasis.

One of the most effective and most common methods of cancer staging is the TNM system of classification. This system of classification is recommended that should be at least updated on a six to the eight-month basis, and the doctor continues to understand the cancer treatment. In the TNM system of classification, the letter T looks at the size and the extent of the primary tumor, and the letter N represents the amount of the regional lymph nodes that contain cancer while the letter M will look at the possibility of cancer spreading to other parts of the body. In the event that the letter X is viewed after T, N, or M, this would be indicated that the patient's diagnosis category is not measurable. If the number 0 follows the T, N, and or M., Then, it means that the group is not able to be detected (Joshi, 2019).

The clinical staging is essential as it can assess the level of cancer through the results it obtains from the test imaging like the scans and x rays, tumor biopsies, and the physical exams. Other test results can also be relevant when it comes to conducting blood tests. Clinical stages are also important in determining the most appropriate treatment to be used in addition to comparing the way that patient treatment is responding with the body.

Also, the pathological method has been known to work well during cancer staging, which is also referred to as the surgical method of cancer staging. The pathological stage will also be determined by the results obtained in the initial examinations and ways of testing as described above. It can also be determined by what the physician learned about patient cancer during surgery. The surgery is usually executed as a way or removing cancer to the other related lymph nodes. The same type of cancer may also be conducted as a way of determining the degree to which type of cancer is in the person’s body by extracting the different tissue samples. The pathological stages are also different from the clinical staging if the surgery shows that cancer has spread all through the body that it was expected (Joshi, 2019). The pathological stage is also essential as it helps the physician to come up with the required vital information that the physician will be using income in with the right treatment plans and care solutions.

Complications of Cancer

There are bound to be different forms of complexity when it comes to the diagnosis, treatment, and care of cancer patients (Krakowski & Henry, 2018). These complications will mostly depend on the part that it adversely affected in the body. Some of the most common complications include pain and difficulty in swallowing, fatigue, weight gain, changes regarding the patient’s bladder habits, persistent indigestion, persistent cough and abrupt fevers among other forms of complication.

Available Treatments for Cancer

When it comes to possible treatments for cancer, the most commonly used treatment include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation (Krakowski & Henry, 2018). These treatments also contribute to the above side effects that would often affect the patient’s ability to continue adhering to medication or it can make treatment process very complicated even when the patient is in the palliative care.

Physiological and Psychological Effects of Care

Among the most common physiological and psychological effects of care include Neutropenia, which will reduce the number of white blood cells in the patient's body, reducing the body’s ability to defend itself from germs. The chemotherapy drugs have also been known to kill all the fast-growing cells in the patients, which is not only the cancer cells by the patient's white blood cells. In this regard, when a patient reports having less white blood cells, it means that they will not be in a position to fight infections, meaning they will be likely to get more infections (Krakowski & Henry, 2018). Among the most recommended ways of reducing the chances of getting infected with Neutropenia, side effects are ensuring that the patient washes hands often. The other way to prevent this side effect is to talk to the physician, especially when the patient begins to notice other weak signs of infection. The other side effect is the lymphedema which also occurs when the lymph nodes are taken away during to damage on radiation treatment or during surgery, meaning that it is going to block the lymph from the ability to prevent from fluid and from adequately draining. The lymph which is blocked will then be able to build out in the skin, thus being able to ensure that the selected part of the body does not swell. In most cases, the cancer patients are required to inform the doctor in the event that they notice as a swelling in the body. Also, a specialist can be in a better position to manually drain the lymph nodes. Another alternative also would be recommended for physical exercise or ensure that the patient puts on a tight-fitting garment which will assist in the management of lymphedema. In any case, chemotherapy is often aimed at killing the growing cells in the body; however, during this time, they will damage the body hair roots. At some point, the patient might lose all the hair in the body, including armpit hair, pubic hair, eyebrows, and the eyelashes (Krakowski & Henry, 2018). The hair will later grow after about three to 10 months from the time the patient received the last treatment. At the moment, no effective treatment of the patient hair loss has been discovered, through practices like the cooling caps have also been used to prevent the patient hair from falling during chemotherapy. The cooling cap is also fitted in the head of the patient to ensure that the scalp can cool before or during the chemotherapy treatment (Joshi, 2019). In most cases, it just essential to consider shaving one’s hair before going through chemotherapy, as the hair would eventually fall.


The above task discussed the complication associated with identification, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. The paper also discussed some of the most common side effects and how to deal with them. In summary, cancer is still one of the deadliest conditions for human beings and scientists and researcher are always working of finding a fast, less painful and permanent cure for various types of cancer and side effects of treatment. It is important, however, for the society to be made aware of cancer-prone habits and work towards changing that.


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2. Brailo, V., Boras, V. V., Juras, D. V., Rogulj, A. A., Brzak, B. L., & Alajbeg, I. (2017). Oral Side Effects of Head and Neck Irradiation. Diagnosis and Management of Head and Neck Cancer. doi:10.5772/intechopen.68961

3. Fyta, M. (2016). Mitigation of Cancer Therapy Side-Effects with Light. Mitigation of Cancer Therapy Side-Effects with Light. doi:10.1088/978-1-6817-4075-1ch1

4. Joshi, D. (2019). Breast cancer treatment: survival facts and associated side effects. International Journal of Innovative Science & Technology, 34-40. doi:10.22270/ijist.v4i1.37

5. Krakowski, I., & Henry, A. (2018). Side Effects of Nociceptive Cancer Pain Treatments in Adults. Side Effects of Medical Cancer Therapy, 481-499. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-70253-7_19

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