Palliative and End-of-Life Care Across the Continuum
  • Use team approaches in addressing the basic needs of patients and families through the provision of support systems.
  • Enhancing the quality of life which impact positively to patients and affect any course of illness
  • To ensure that adequate and high quality services are given to the patients, palliative care has integrated disease at early stages to prevent the trajectory. In many developing nations, the lack of palliative care services has resulted in avoidable sufferings and pain to many people. For instance, about 80% of the population globally lacks the accessibility to adequate medication for moderating the severe pain.

    The research company known as the Global opioid policy has identified regulatory barriers which aim at limiting access to medical services of various people. To address these access and availability of the challenges requires a well-coordinated multisectional effort. In addition, addressing this issue of suffering need to involve taking care on matters beyond the physical symptoms. For example, the care palliative care employs a team approach in supporting the patients and their caregivers in providing the services to them. These include addressing the practical needs and providing counseling with those suffering from depression. In addition, it also a support system at helping the patients to live actively until they die (Kvale, et al., 490).

    In health, palliative care is recognized as human right care. Therefore, it should be provided through the person-centred mechanisms and integrate the health services which need to pay attention to the specific needs and the preferences of various individuals in a health facility setting.

    Palliative care is essential to a wide range of diseases. Majority of the adults who need palliative care suffer from chronic diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. Other chronic illnesses which may require palliative care include kidney failure, chronic liver diseases, and neurological diseases, among others. Pain is the frequent and most common symptoms experienced by patients who need palliative care. The opioid analgesics are the essentials mechanisms of treating pain which is associated with many advanced and progressive conditions. For instance, patients infected with HIV or cancer who experience severe pain which can easily end their lives. In addition, the opioids can also alleviate many other distressing physical symptoms such as breathlessness. Therefore, controlling such symptoms at tender stages is the ethical duty of relieving the pain and suffering o the respect and dignity of people.

    In palliative care, pain management is a critical component. Despite the efforts by WHO, there are some current international and national policies which limit the availability of essential pain medications in developing nations. These act has been condemned so much because it seems to be more of discriminatory for people in various parts of the globe to be denied access to medical services. Every year, almost 40 million of the patients need palliative care; out of the 80% live in low and middle-income nations. For children, the highest percentage need palliative care, but most lie in little income nation, mostly in Africa. The following has been started as the main significant barriers which need to be overcome for people to receive good palliative care. National and health policies fail to include palliative care to their budgets at all Training for palliative care is mainly limited or sometimes does not exist at all (Kerr, et al., 1334). Population accessibility to opioid pain relief is limited, thus fail to meet the international conversations in accessing essential medicines (Pavlish, and Ceronsky, 796).

    To solve the above mentioned barriers, national health systems need to be responsible to include the palliative care in the continuum of care for their people suffering from chronic disease and the life-threatening conditions. It also needs to link it to the prevention, early detection, and coming up with programs which aim at reducing it at all costs (Greene, 37). For example, the health system policies need to integrate palliative care services by restructuring t and financing the national health care systems at all levels of care. Coming up with the plans which strengthen and expand the human resources, this can be done through training, professionals and embedding palliative care into the core curricula for the new health professionals as well educating all people about the need to have palliative care at all level of health. Finally, a medicine policy which ensures the availability of essential medicines for managing the symptoms and relieving pain and respiratory distress of many patients. Other known barriers to useful palliative include

    Lack of enough awareness among the policymakers and the health professionals on palliative care and the benefits and offer the patients with sound health systems. Some culture and social barriers also affect palliative care is given to various people, for example, beliefs on death and . Some misconception on palliative care such as it only works for only patients affected with cancer during the last weeks of their life. Finally, some other mistakes that improving access to opioids analgesia will only increase the substance abuse. This is not correct because palliative care has more advantages than the disadvantage to the community. Palliative care is beneficial when considered at an early stage of illness.

    Early palliative care improves the quality of life for the patients and reduces unnecessary hospitalizations and the use of health care services. In addition, palliative care needs to be provided in accordance with the universal health care coverage (Oetjen, and Mary McSweeney, 1). All people need to get the services irrespective of income and the region they are coming from. The financial and social protection needs to take into account the human right through the provision of palliative health care to them. These should mainly be focused on poor and people living in marginalized areas. Specialist palliative care is one component of palliative care; it entails service delivery to all needy people (EVANS, et al., 160). Sustainable palliative care needs to be integrated into primary health care, community and home-based health facilities. Therefore, palliative care should be considered as the ethical duty for all health professionals.

    Recognized palliative care is a key component in the right to the health of individuals. The assessment is also an essential part of the universal health coverage across all the diseases across ages, groups or various conditions. The health providers should come up with policies to ensure access to and the multidisciplinary care across the continuum, which include palliative care. In addition, increase to the availability and accessibility of the services such as availability of the medicines should be given priority across the globe. Therefore, they should also ensure adequate support for palliative care research and training.

    To conclude, palliative care seeks in improving the quality of patients and the caregivers who are suffering from threatening illness. In addition, the health system policies need to integrate palliative care services by restructuring t and financing the national health care systems at all levels of care. Coming up with the policies which strengthen and expand the human resources, this can be done through training, professionals and embedding palliative care into the core curricula for the new health professionals as well educating all people about the need to have palliative care at all level of health. Finally, a medicine policy which ensures the availability of essential medicines for managing the symptoms and relieving pain and respiratory distress of many patients. Palliative care needs to be provided in accordance with the universal health care coverage. All people need to get the services irrespective of income and the region they are coming from. The financial and social protection needs to take into account the human right through the provision of palliative health care to them. These should mainly be focused on poor and people living in marginalized areas

    References

    1. EVANS, CATHERINE J., et al. “Service Delivery Models to Maximize Quality of Life for Older People at the End of Life: A Rapid Review.” Milbank Quarterly, vol. 97, no. 1, Mar. 2019, pp. 113–175. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/1468-0009.12373.

    2. GREENE, JAN. “BRINGING CARE AND COMFORT ACROSS THE CONTINUUM. (Cover Story).” HandHN: Hospitals and Health Networks, vol. 90, no. 8, Aug. 2016, pp. 36–39. EBSCOhost,

    3. Kerr, Christopher W., et al. “Cost Savings and Enhanced Hospice Enrollment with a Home-Based Palliative Care Program Implemented as a Hospice-Private Payer Partnership.” Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 17, no. 12 Dec. 2014, pp. 1328–1335. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1089/jpm.2014.0184.

    4. Kvale, Elizabeth A., et al. “The Balm of Gilead Project: A Demonstration Project on End-of-Life Care for Safety-Net Populations.” Journal of Palliative Medicine, vol. 7, no. 3, June 2004, pp. 486–493. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1089/1096621041349428

    5. Oetjen, Reid M., and Mary Helen McSweeney-Feld. Dimensions of Long-Term Care Management: An Introduction. Health Administration Press, 2012. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=trueanddb=nlebkandAN=516235andsite=ehost-live.

    6. Pavlish, Carol, and Lyn Ceronsky. “Oncology Nurses’ Perceptions About Palliative Care.” Oncology Nursing Forum, vol. 34, no. 4, July 2007, pp. 793–800. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1188/07.ONF.793-800.

    7. Phillips, Robert A. America’s Healthcare Transformation: Strategies and Innovations. Rutgers University Press Medicine, 2016. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=trueanddb=nlebkandAN=1240312andsite=ehost-live.

    8. PR Newswire. “Vinca and Five Wishes Partner to Make Advance Directives Digitally Available Across the Care Continuum.” PR Newswire US, 3 Oct. 2019. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=trueanddb=bwhandAN=201910031200PR.NEWS.USPR.LA92455andsite=ehost-live.

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