Organizational Behavior and Culture in Management
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Assessment of the impact of an organization's culture on organizational behavior
In assessing the effects of an organization's culture on organizational behavior, it is imperative to understand the context of an organization culture. Organizational culture implies a system of norms within an organization with distinctive characteristics that differentiates one organization from other organizations and that is shared among members of the organization (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Every organization has its own culture that is defined by a set of norms that guides the organization's way of doing things. These norms, subject to their strengths, have an impact on the behaviors and attitudes of employees of the organization. An organizational culture can either be defined as strong or weak. A strong culture is characterized by wide acceptance of the organization's core values by most of the members within in an organization. Member's acceptance of the organization's core values shows that the culture impacts on the overall behavior within an organization.
One of the primary impacts of organization's culture is that dependent on its strength i.e., strong or weak, it reduces or increases employees turnover respectively. A strong culture indicates a strong understanding of the objectives of an organization among its members. Correspondingly, a weak culture in an organization demonstrates low levels of agreement among the members and thus increases employee's turnover (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Hence, an organization that has a strong culture builds on employee's behavior such as commitment, cohesiveness, and organizational loyalty.
The second impact of an organizational culture is related to its function in that it acts as a control mechanism and a goal-oriented guide in shaping the behavior and attitudes of the employees. In this context, an organization's culture influences the organization's selection behavior (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Most organizations are determined to select employees whose behavior and attitude are compatible with the organization's internalized culture.
Another impact that an organization's culture has on organizational behavior refers to the stability enhancement of the social unit among the members (Robbins & Judge, 2017). An organization's culture is responsible for creating a social climate within the organization which in turn influence on employees mode of association. A positive social attitude in an organization is credited with high levels of behavioral performances among the employees.
Lastly, an organization's culture is a determining aspect of the ethical climate of respective members within an organization. The ethical environment in an organization impacts on the manner in which the employees feel they should behave (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Employees' commitment and job satisfaction are influenced by the ethical culture established within the organization.
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Differences between leadership, power, and management
Power and leadership are distinctive but related concepts. Power in management is perceived to be the discipline that focuses on the directing and organizing employees, observing that the set standards are conformed to, and maintenance of the status quo in an organization. In any given organization, power is often associated with the manager who is given the authority to direct the activities rendered to employees and ensure that the employees respond appropriately with the aim of achieving the organization's objectives (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Managers are expected to apply a set of certain skills and methods in directing their employees in organizational tasks in a rational and a logical manner.
On the other hand, Leadership within a given organization specializes in setting objectives, making advancements on existing organizational structures, leading and motivating employees in the organization. Leadership is characterized by a set of unique behaviors that comprise such behaviors as sharing of the organization's vision, instituting change, empowering, leading, and establishing a conducive environment for employees' success (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Leadership is not dependent on specific skills that are attributed to an individual. Rather, it is interlinked by the mode of approach to a specific task and the relation of the leader builds with the employees he is tasked to lead. Some of the recognizable differences related to power and leadership are as outlined in the following paragraphs.
The first recognizable difference between leadership and power is that leadership is enforced using legal means and is a result of the positional level in an organization. In this context, leadership is, therefore, a practical effort in offering guidance on the direction of activities. Contrastingly, power is a characteristic of an individual and originates from social positioning and charisma. Thus, power is focused on control and rationality in directing an organization's goals, employees, structures, and resources in finding solutions to organization's challenges.
The second characteristic difference of the two aspects of management in an organization is based on their formality context (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Whereas leadership is observed to be formal in regarding the superior-subordinate relationship, power is observed to be informal while weighted on an individual understanding aspect.
Thirdly, power in an organization is observed to be associated with an individual. As a result, it is perceived to transcend boundaries within an organization. Contrastingly, leadership is correlated with a specific position in an organization and thus is confined to the structure within the organization and has limited scope (Robbins & Judge, 2017).
Additionally, leadership is equally applied within an organization whereas power is indiscriminately applied. Another characteristic difference related to power and leadership is that the latter is institutional and is structured for a specific position in an organization. The holder of the structure position enjoys the leadership privilege attached to that position. Distinctively, the former is not offered by an organization and is regarded as an individual awareness in influencing other member's decisions. It is said to be individually acquired. Overall, it is observed that in organizations there are multiple leadership centers whereas no power centers are observed in organization's structure (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Hence, power is unrelated to any position in an organization's structure since any individual in an organization regardless on the placement in the hierarchal structure can influencing decision making. Lastly, power is interlinked with politics within an organization whereas leadership bears no relation to politics.
The influence ethical issues, either good or bad, have on organizational behavior
Organizational ethics is an extension of organization's culture and refers to the expression of organizational values by an organization towards its employees and other entities devoid of regulatory or government laws. Ethics constitutes the mode within which members in an organization relate and behave in the process of achieving the organization's objectives. It defines the responsibility of any individual for enforcing morals amongst other members with the view of achieving foundations of the organization's success (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Ethical issues in an organization relate to the response to internal or external stimulus through conceptualized values. Four principal elements that include; a written code of standards, a system of confidential reporting, advice for an ethical situation, and a training program on for executives and employees define a conducive environment in an organization.
Relating to the ethical environment within an organization, ethical issues refer to the shared set of activities that define a collect behavior by members of the organization. Ethical issues can be defined by a range of issues such as professional codes and laws, efficiency in operations, self-interest, team interest, standard procedures and rules, personal and social responsibility, personal and social morality, and work-related friendship. Ethical issues may either be positive or negative as predisposed by the existing ethical climate within an organization. In negative ethical organizational environment or in cases where the ethical code and standards are unclear, unethical behavior is prevalent (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Thus by extension, organizational behavior that is not clearly defined can influence employees towards an unethical behavior. Some organizations, through selectively hire and promote employees whose personal values are consistent with their ethics.
A progressive set of ethics promotes a positive rapport among the employees which in turn promotes efficiency in the respective operations. Hence, positive ethics in an organization gives employees and the management to cooperate in organizational activities with a progressive attitude towards achieving the objectives of the organization. Positive ethical environment inspires the entire organization community to efficiently perform their duties. Most of the activities within an organization require teamwork and are only achievable if the organization's culture is stimulated by good ethics (Robbins & Judge, 2017).
Employee and management influences affect the ethical relation in the organization. Influences such as individual beliefs and attitudes impact on the ethical culture within the organization. For example, some members may feel that they are the most suited to provide ideas and decision and hence any other opinion by fellow members is absolute (Robbins & Judge, 2017). Some other members may relate to their counterparts in a superior –subordinate relation, an experience that constitutes bad ethics within the organization. In such circumstances, other members may feel disregarded and the experience may have a negative impact on their efficiency.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2017). Organizational behavior. Boston: Pearson.